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Ankle Ligament and Cartilage Repair

Restoring Stability and Function: An In-Depth Look at Ankle Ligament and Cartilage Repair

Dr Tan Ken Jin is the foot and ankle specialist at Orthosports.

Ankle injuries are prevalent and can result from various causes, including sports, accidents, or everyday activities. These injuries often involve damage to the ligaments or cartilage within the joint, affecting its stability and function.

When conservative treatments are insufficient, surgical intervention may be necessary to restore the ankle’s proper functioning and alleviate pain. This article will discuss ankle ligament and cartilage repair, including treatment options, surgical procedures, and rehabilitation.

Cartilage Repair Surgery Recovery Process

Understanding Ankle Ligament Injuries

Ankle ligament injuries occur when the fibrous bands that connect bones and stabilize the joint become stretched, torn, or otherwise damaged. The severity of these injuries can range from mild sprains to complete tears, leading to chronic pain, instability, and limited mobility.

Understanding Ankle Cartilage Injuries

Cartilage is a smooth, rubbery tissue that covers the ends of bones and allows them to glide smoothly against each other within joints. In the ankle, cartilage damage can result from acute injuries or chronic wear and tear, leading to joint pain, swelling, and reduced mobility.

Non-Surgical Treatment Options

For mild to moderate ankle ligament and cartilage injuries, conservative treatments may promote healing and reduce symptoms. These treatments can include:

  • The RICE method (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation)
  • Pain relief and anti-inflammatory medications
  • Physical therapy and rehabilitation exercises
  • Ankle braces or supportive devices

Surgical Treatment Options for Ankle Ligament Repair

Surgery may be necessary when conservative treatments fail to improve ankle ligament injuries. Surgical options include:
  • Arthroscopic All-Inside Repair with Internal Brace: Dr Ken Jin utlizes the most modern techniques, this minimally invasive procedure reconstructs, or repairs damaged ligaments using small incisions and specialized instruments. In addition, an internal brace provides additional support and stability, allowing for the fastest rehabilitation and return to sports and function.
  • Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction: A more invasive procedure that involves using a graft, usually from the patient’s own tissue, to reconstruct the damaged ligaments and restore stability to the joint.

Surgical Treatment Options for Ankle Cartilage Repair

Several surgical techniques can address cartilage damage within the ankle joint, including:

  • Autogenous Cartilage Transplantation (Autocart): Dr Ken Jin utilizes the latest one-stage technique to repair cartilage defects and ankle and knee injuries. This advanced procedure involves harvesting healthy cartilage tissue from the patient and transplanting it directly to the damaged area, offering a more streamlined approach compared to traditional methods.
  • Microfracture: A procedure in which small holes are made in the bone beneath the damaged cartilage, stimulating the formation of new cartilage tissue.
  • Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI): A two-step process that involves harvesting healthy cartilage cells from the patient, expanding them in a lab, and implanting them back into the damaged area.
  • Osteochondral Grafting: A procedure involving transplanting healthy cartilage and underlying bone from a donor site, usually within the patient’s body, to the damaged area.

Rehabilitation and Recovery

A personalized rehabilitation plan is crucial for a successful recovery following ankle ligament or cartilage repair surgery. This process may include the following:

  • Gradual weight-bearing and range-of-motion exercises
  • Strengthening and balance exercises to restore stability.
  • Gait training and functional activities to regain mobility.

Guidance from a physiotherapist or other healthcare professional

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Ankle ligament and cartilage repair can be complex, but with the appropriate treatment and rehabilitation, patients can regain stability, function, and pain-free life. It is essential to consult with a foot and ankle specialist or an orthopaedic/sports doctor to determine the best course of action for each case.

To learn more about this condition and our capabilities to assist, speak to our practice at +65 6734 8168 or send an email to


An ankle ligament tear refers to the injury of one or more ligaments in the ankle joint. It often occurs when the ligaments are stretched beyond their normal range of motion, leading to partial or complete tearing.

Ankle ligament tears are commonly caused by activities that involve sudden changes in direction or excessive force applied to the ankle. Examples include sports injuries, falls, or accidents.

Symptoms of an ankle ligament tear may include pain, swelling, bruising, instability of the ankle joint, difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected foot, and limited range of motion.

It is advisable to seek medical attention for an ankle ligament tear if you experience severe pain, significant swelling, inability to bear weight on the affected foot, or if the symptoms worsen despite self-care measures.

Treatment options for an ankle ligament tear vary depending on the severity of the injury. Non-surgical treatments may include physical therapy, ankle bracing or taping, and the use of supportive devices. In more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or reconstruct the damaged ligaments.

It is essential to consult with a foot and ankle specialist or an orthopaedic/sports doctor to determine the need for surgery. Generally, surgical intervention is considered when conservative treatments, such as rest, ice, compression, elevation, medications, and physical therapy, have not provided significant improvement or relief. Persistent pain, instability, and limited mobility may indicate the need for surgical ankle ligaments or cartilage repair.

The treatment of ankle cartilage damage depends on various factors, such as the extent and location of the damage. Non-surgical options may include physical therapy, pain management, and orthotics. Surgical interventions such as arthroscopy, cartilage transplantation, or joint replacement may be considered for more severe cases.

Recovery time can vary depending on the severity of the injury, the type of surgical procedure performed, and the individual patient's overall health. For arthroscopic ligament repair (Arthroscopic Brostrom), the recovery period may range from 6-12 weeks. Recovery can take several months for more invasive procedures, such as lateral ankle ligament reconstruction or cartilage repair techniques like ACI and osteochondral grafting. Following a personalized rehabilitation plan under the guidance of a healthcare professional is essential for a successful recovery.

Most patients can return to their previous activity level after undergoing ankle ligament or cartilage repair surgery. However, the timeline for returning to sports or other physically demanding activities depends on the individual patient's recovery progress, the type of surgery performed, and the specific sport or activity. It is crucial to follow the guidance and recommendations of your healthcare professional to ensure a safe and successful return to physical activities.

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