Ligament Reconstruction


Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

The anterior cruciate ligament or ACL is one of the most common injured ligaments of the knee, especially in sports such as basketball and football. The ACL stabilizes the knee for cutting, twisting and jumping and pivoting activity. The anterior cruciate ligament is in the centre of the knee joint.

When you tear an ACL, you will often feel or hear a pop. You will also feel the knee shift out of place and develop significant swelling in just a few hours. The initial treatment should consist of ice to the knee, leg elevation and crutches. A sports physician, orthopaedic surgeon or physiotherapist in Singapore should evaluate the injury.

If the ACL has been torn, surgical ligament reconstruction of the ligament may be indicated, as the ligament rarely heals by itself. In this type of surgery, the most common procedure in Singapore is to take either the hamstring tendons or the patellar tendon of the same leg and place it in the original location of the injured ACL. After a period of proper rehabilitation for complete ligament reconstruction following surgery in Singapore, the athlete can return safely to active participation in four to six months.

Notice how “loose” the knee is. (This is called the Lachman’s test)

Torn ACL

Torn ACL during knee arthroscopy.


Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

The posterior cruciate ligament is in the back of the knee. As a rule of thumb, it is usually not as disabling as ACL injuries. Most PCL injuries can be treated with physiotherapy except for very severe tears. Uncommonly, PCL tears can be associated with tears of the structures on the lateral (outside) of the knee. This is known as a Posterolateral Complex injury (PLC).

Meniscus Tears

The meniscus is shock-absorbing cartilage in the middle of your knee. There are two menisci – one on the inside (“medial”) and another on the outside of the knee (“lateral”).

Patients with meniscus tears will complain of pain on either side of the knee. Sometimes there is associated swelling of the knee. Twisting or squatting can cause increased pain. Occasionally, if there is a large meniscus tear, a patient can complain that their knee locks, that is, it gets stuck in a certain position then needs to be “wiggled” to get it back into place.

The meniscus can be torn in two main ways.

Traumatic tear – twisting injuries to the knee can cause meniscus tears. This can happen during sports or even while doing things around the house or office. Road accidents are another common way of injuring the meniscus.

Degenerative tear – as you age, so do your menisci. They “wear out” and can tear with minimal trauma. Often people don’t remember what caused the tear at all!

Meniscal tears are usually diagnosed from the patient's history and physical examination but a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan is very useful for confirming the diagnosis. If your knee continues to produce pain, your physician in Singapore may recommend keyhole or arthroscopic surgery. However, not all people with a meniscus tear require surgery. Some people are able to avoid surgery if they can cope with their symptoms.
A Bucket Handle Tear

A bucket handle tear of the meniscus causing the locking of the knee.

Dr KC Ang
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Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain or pain at the front of the knee is a common problem that affects both competitive sportsmen and also the recreational athlete. There are many reasons for developing this pain.

The location of the pain, type of aggravating activities and any associated clicking, giving way or swelling will help your doctor to pinpoint the diagnosis. Patients with anterior knee pain typically present with a diffuse ache over the front part of the knee. This is also known as the retro patellar region.

It may be precipitated or exacerbated by either prolonged sitting (‘movie-goer’s knee’) or activities that involve bending the knee such as climbing, kneeling or squatting. It is often insidious, but it may present after an acute traumatic episode (e.g. falling on the knee). Activities such as basketball and volleyball which involve jumping can also contribute to the problem.

The mainstay of treatment for anterior knee pain is physiotherapy and medication for pain relief. It is also important that patients modify their lifestyles to avoid the activities that make the symptoms worse. In selected cases, surgery can be helpful.

Anterior Knee Pain

anterior knee pain


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